Tuesday, October 14, 2008

Ma Ying-jeou

Ma Ying-jeou is the incumbent President of the Republic of China. He formerly served as from 1993 to 1996, Mayor of Taipei from 1998 to 2006, and Chairman of the Kuomintang from 2005 to 2007.

Ma was elected Mayor of Taipei in 1998 and re-elected in 2002. He was elected Chairman of the Kuomintang by party members on July 16, 2005. He announced his resignation on February 13, 2007 after being indicted by the Taiwan High Prosecutors Office on charges of during his tenure as the mayor of Taipei. Ma subsequently won the presidency in the . He was sworn into office on 20 May 2008.

Personal background

Ma was born in Hong Kong , then a , to father Ma Ho-ling from Xiangtan, Hunan or Hengshan, Hunan . When he was one year old, his family moved to Taiwan.

He earned a law degree from National Taiwan University in 1972. He completed additional studies in the United States, first earning an from New York University Law School in 1976 and then an degree from Harvard Law School in 1981.

After receiving his LL.M., Ma briefly worked as an on Wall Street in New York. Ma returned to Taiwan in 1981 to teach law.

Ma is married to with two daughters. Lesley was born when Ma was studying in the US; she is currently a graduate student at New York University, having completed her undergraduate work at Harvard University.

Rise in politics

Ma Ying-jeou started working for Chiang Ching-kuo of the after earning his S.J.D. first as an English translator and assistant. Ma was later promoted to the chair of the Research, Development, and Evaluation Commission under the Executive Yuan at the age of 38, becoming the youngest cabinet member in the ROC government.

Ma was deputy secretary-general of the from 1984 to 1988, also serving for a period as deputy of the Mainland Affairs Council , a cabinet-level body in charge of cross-straits relations. President Lee Teng-hui appointed him in 1993. Ma was relieved of his post in 1996. His supporters claim that firing was caused by his efforts at fighting corruption and has contributed to his clean image. Despite his efforts at anti-corruption, he remained a supporter of the Kuomintang rather than supporting the which was formed by KMT supporters who campaigned on an anti-corruption platform. After a short stint as a minister without portfolio, Ma returned to academia, and most people at the time believed his political career to have effectively ended.

Mayoralty, 19982006

In 1998, the KMT fielded Ma to challenge the then-incumbent Taipei mayor Chen Shui-bian of the opposition Democratic Progressive Party who was seeking re-election. Despite Chen's public approval rating of over 80%, Chen was defeated. In the , Ma remained loyal to the KMT and supported its candidate, Lien Chan, over James Soong, who had bolted from the party and was running as an independent. The competition between Lien and Soong split the Pan-Blue vote and allowed his former rival Chen to win the presidential election with less than 50% of the popular vote. The election result, combined with other factors, incited a great deal of anger against Ma when he tried to dissuade discontented Lien and Soong supporters from protesting by appealing to them in his dual capacities as Taipei City mayor and high-ranking KMT member.

Ma was able to repair the political damage and in December 2002, he became the leading figure in the KMT by easily winning reelection as mayor of Taipei with the support of 64% of Taipei voters while DPP challenger Lee Ying-yuan received 36%. His solid victory, especially in light of opposition from both President Chen and former President and KMT Chairman Lee Teng-hui, led many to speculate about his chances as the KMT candidate for the 2004 presidential elections, although nothing came of it.

Ma again dissuaded angry Pan-Blue supporters from protesting following the very close re-election victory of President Chen in 2004 after 3-19 shooting incident. Ma chose not to join in calls to challenge or contest the election. Ma also avoided associating himself with claims that the assassination was staged.

Ma suffered some political damage as a result of the SARS epidemic in early 2003 and was criticized for not mobilizing the Taipei city government quickly enough, and for keeping Chiu Shu-ti, the public health director, who was previously criticized for her lack of concern for the outbreak. Flooding in metropolitan Taipei in 2004 also led to public questioning of his leadership and caused Ma's approval rating to slide.

During his time as Taipei's mayor, Ma had many conflicts with the central government over matters such as health insurance rates and control of the water supply during the drought. Ma also was implicated in a scandal of Taipei Bank stock releases in 2003; however, the case was dismissed after an investigation by the Taipei prosecutor. He was strongly criticized by the for not allowing the ROC national flag to be flown along with a PRC flag during a cross-strait soccer match held in Taipei. Ma responded that he was merely following Olympic , which only officially recognizes the , and forbids ROC national flags from being shown in an Olympic Game Stadium.

His initiatives in administering the city of Taipei include changing the transliterations of street names and the Taipei Rapid Transit System's line and station names into Hanyu Pinyin, as opposed to Tongyong Pinyin. Ma has expressed mild support for Chinese reunification and opposition to Taiwan independence. He opposed the , which had been widely criticized by the U.S. and PRC. Nevertheless, his opposition to the Anti-Secession Law of the People's Republic of China led him to be banned from visiting Hong Kong to make a public speaking tour in 2005. He also criticized the PRC for the .

Ma's cross-political following has led some to note him as a rare example of relative civility in the notoriously rough and tumble world of Taiwanese politics. Ma has generally avoided being accused of using the vitriolic and sometimes offensive rhetoric common in Taiwanese political debate. His academic background and bearing have helped cultivate the image of Ma as an honest, dispassionate technocrat. Despite this reputation, and his wooden speaking style and shy demeanor, Ma is also considered a charismatic figure and is popular among women and youth. On the other hand, Ma's critics claim that Ma, overeager to appear unbiased and/or neutral, is overly indecisive and lacks bold vision. Ma is often accused of avoiding being out in front on some of the more vigorous or controversial criticisms of President Chen or opposing parties, or involving himself in intra-party disputes. Among these critics, Ma has been referred to as a "non-stick " or "-man." Recently there has also been some criticism of his stumping for election candidates suspected of and later indicted for corruption charges. Many in the Pan-Green Coalition expressed opinions that Ma misled voters by lending his clean charismatic image to unscrupulous candidates in his own party.

In recent years, Ma has increasingly employed in public speaking, perhaps to avoid backlash for his parents' mainland origin, and he has called himself a "child of ," identifying himself with the historic district of Taipei where he grew up. Others claim that Ma's mainland Chinese ancestry will further alienate members of the KMT who are "light-blue" vs. the pro-unification "deep-blue." However, Ma seems less polarizing in this sense than Lien Chan or other older KMT figures who did not grow up in Taiwan and are regarded by some as elitist about their ancestry.

Controversies during Mayoralty

While often nicknamed as “Teflon pot” for his extreme preservation of personal image, Ma was nonetheless caught in some political controversies. A series of mishaps during his tenure as the Mayor of Taipei, including the administration problems that enlarged the extent of the Typhoon Nari , the Shutdown of Hoping Hospital , the Phosgene Incident , the Scalping Incident and the Human Ball Scandal , impaired Ma’s reputation. However, Ma maneuvered through these incidents relatively unscathed.

One of his latest case is the Beitou Cable Car Link. According to Taiwan Laws, Taipei Municipal Government is the sole sponsor of this disputed BOT. However, the local press kept closing up on the detention of Yen Wan-chin, the allegedly bribed deputy Minister of Interior who staged a hunger strike for his innocence, for a few days, and played it down as independent critics began to put up their findings about wrongdoings of Taipei Municipal Government and question Ma’s responsibility as the Mayor.

One of Ma's most satisfactory mayoral construction was the Maokong Gondola. However, the frequent breakdown of the gondola caused the residents' distaste of the new transportation system. Only 14% of the Taipei City residents were satisfied with it. It even led to protests. The Taiwan Environmental Information Center states that the choice to use the gondola used in the temperate zone in the tropical zone shows the failure of the Taipei City government led by Ma.

On November 14, 2006, Ma was questioned by prosecutors over his alleged misuse of a special expenses account as Taipei mayor. This occurred after Chen Shui-Bian was being investigated for corruption, and many KMT supporters believed that this prosecution was politically motivated.

At the same time, rumors surfaced that former party chairman Lien Chen would run in the presidential election of 2008. The incident may have affected the clean image of Ma and his political future. On the next day, Ma admitted one of his aides forged receipts to claim Ma's expenses as Taipei mayor, and apologized for the latest political scandal. However, Ma argued that he, like most other government officials, regarded the special expense account as a supplement to salary to pay for personal expenses undertaken in the course of official duties, and that his use of this account was not illegal.

On February 13, 2007, Ma was indicted by the Taiwan High Prosecutors Office on charges of allegedly embezzling approximately NT$11 million , regarding the issue of "special expenses" while he was mayor of Taipei. The prosecutor's office said that Ma had allegedly used government funds for personal use, such as paying for one of his daughter's living expenses while studying abroad and paying for his household utilities. Before that, Ma had admitted personal usage and claims that the special funds were simply a part of his salary but had used all funds for public use or public benefit .

Shortly after the indictment, he submitted his resignation as chairman of the Kuomintang in accordance with party rules which prohibit an indicted person from serving as KMT chairman The resignation was initially rejected but then accepted by the party's Central Standing Committee before amending a clause that barred members from running for office if charged with a crime. Shortly after the resignation, however, Ma announced his presidential candidacy.

On August 14, 2007, the Taipei District Count found Ma not guilty of corruption, and cleared his name of all charges stating that "Special Expenses" is essentially "Special allowance" which was originally designed to compensate for mayor's "social spending" without actually raising salary. On December 28, 2007, the Taiwan High Court again found Ma not guilty of graft charges.

On April 24, 2008, The Supreme Court cleared Ma of corruption charges, delivering a final ruling in this matter before his inauguration on May 20, 2008. The island's highest court said Ma had neither collected illegal income nor tried to break the law.

KMT chairmanship, 20052007

Ma's prestige increased after the loss by Lien Chan in as he is widely seen as the natural successor of Lien Chan. His handling of the post-election demonstrations of the Pan-Blue Coalition, in which he at one point sent riot police to control the demonstrations of his pan-blue party supporters, was generally seen as impartial. In 2005, Ma and Wang Jin-pyng were candidates in the first competitive election for KMT chairmanship. On 5 April 2005, in an exclusive interview with CTV talk show host Sisy Chen, Ma said he wished to lead the opposition Kuomintang with Wang, if he were elected its chairman, as their support bases are complementary. On July 16, 2005, Ma defeated Wang by a 72% to 28% margin, a margin larger than anticipated by either camp or news sources, despite Wang's receiving a last-minute endorsement by chairman James Soong, who had retained significant following within the KMT. Some, particularly the supporters of Wang Jin-pyng, accuse Ma of unfairly implying that Wang is involved in "black gold" and criticized Ma's aides for being rude to Wang during the campaign. After the election, Ma had stated repeatedly that he wishes Wang to remain as first-ranked deputy chairman. Wang, however, has so far rebuffed the gesture, instead stating that he wishes to serve as "permanent volunteer." Wang has, indeed, accepted a party post that is incompatible with vice chairmanship, effectively ending the possibility that he would be vice chairman, although after meeting with Wang, Ma had stated that he would "leave the position open" for Wang. Ma has also repeatedly stated that he had no plans to resign from the Taipei mayorship, even after he formally took over the chairmanship from incumbent Lien Chan during the 17th Party Congress of the KMT in August 2005.

Led by Ma Ying-jeou, the Kuomintang made a resounding win in the held on December 3, 2005. The KMT gained 6 more seats in the mayoral/magistratical race, from 8 seats in the last election, to a total of 14 seats. Before the election, Ma swore that he would quit the chairmanship if his party could not win over half of the seats, which was a first for a KMT chairman. It was a decisive win for Ma Ying-jeou as well, since he took over the party chairmanship only 110 days before. In the election, the KMT won back the counties of Taipei and Yilan, and the city of Chiayi, which had been the Democratic Progressive Party 's strongholds for over twenty years. It was the first time in many years that the KMT regained popularity as far south as Cho-Shui River . Quoting again his famous quote, Ma said, "we should only be excited about it for one evening."

2008 presidential campaign

On the same day he resigned as chairman of the KMT, Ma also announced his intention to run in the 2008 presidential elections. He was the official nominee of the Kuomintang for the 2008 presidential elections.

Ma led a visit to India and Singapore in June 2007 to increase bilateral exchanges as well as to gain legitimacy and experience for his 2008 presidential bid.

Ma's vice-presidential running mate was former premier Vincent Siew. Siew was also Lien Chan's running mate in the 2000 elections.

During a campaigning event in an community, Ma made a controversial remark. Responding a question from an aboriginal woman, Ma said, "...you are a Taipei citizen; I see you as a human being..." This statement was thought to be extremely inappropriate.

U.S. green card issue

Democratic Progressive Party candidate Frank Hsieh questioned Ma for his possession of a United States Permanent Resident Card. Ma denied having one and publicly expressed that no members of his family had one. However, the fact that Ma and his wife had applied for green cards and that his sisters and his older daughter Lesley Ma are caused controversy as the DPP continued to question Ma's loyalty to the country. In response to the DPP attack on the US citizenship of his sisters, Ma commented that having a US passport or green card did not mean that someone was not loyal to Taiwan. Ma responded the next day to the president that he should work on improving Taiwan's economy instead of caring about the election so much; earlier, Ma also provided copies of US non-immigrant visas issued to him during the 1980s and 1990s, claiming the card was invalid as such visas are not issued to green card holders. However, the DPP campaign continued to allege that the green card was valid.

Environmental criticism

Ma has been criticized by many environmental groups. His mayoral construction of the Maokong Gondola was criticized by the Taiwan Environmental Information Center. The city government said that the ages of the trees are unknown, therefore they are not protected by law. The SOW then responded that according to pictures taken by the United States Air Force in 1947 and 1948, these trees were present already during the . In February 2008, several environmental groups created a list of commitments for the two candidates to sign. DPP candidate Frank Hsieh agreed on all the items on the list and signed it in March. Ma did not, and emailed the group instead. The Taiwan Environmental Protection Union criticized Ma for ignoring the important issue and not having guts to sign the commitments.

After Ma was elected president on March 22, 2008, the Green Party Taiwan expressed its fear that president-elect Ma focuses too much on improving the economy, that he has ignored many critical environmental issues. The head of the Environmental Quality Protection Foundation also emphasized the importance of environmental protection as one of the factors of economic development.

Presidency, 2008

Ma officially won on March 22, 2008 with 58% of the vote, ending 8 years of Democratic Progressive Party rule. Ma won with 7,659,014 votes against 5,444,949 votes. Ma's overwhelming victory in the presidential election gave him political mandate to make changes in Taiwan.

Ma took office on May 20 2008. The inaugural ceremony took place in Taipei Arena in Taipei. A state dinner took place in Kaohsiung the same day.

With a declining economy and his administration's seeming inability to reverse the declines, Ma saw his approval ratings steadily decline through his months in office. Ma won the approval of 41% in June 2008; 24.9% in September; and 23% in October, according to polling done by TVBS.

On August 12, 2008, Ma embarked on his first foreign trip as President. Ma's visit centered upon improving relations with Taiwan's allies. He attended the inaugurations of both Leonel Fernandez of the Dominican Republic and Fernando Lugo of Paraguay. Ma also made a stop at Panama and met with President Martin Torrijos. There was emphasis that there will be no new aid packages during the visits; if any new economic aid were to be announced, they would be announced from Taiwan and not from abroad. The trip included U.S. stop-overs in Los Angeles, , and San Francisco. Ma's trip across the Pacific was via commercial flight and only chartered a smaller jet from the United States; he was accompanied by an 81-member delegation.

In a published August 11, 2008 edition, Time Magazine writes that in less than three months' time, "''relations between Taiwan and China have arguably seen the most rapid advancement in the six-decade standoff between the two governments. Ma launched direct weekend charter flights between China and Taiwan for the first time, opened Taiwan to mainland tourists, eased restrictions on Taiwan investment on the mainland and approved measures that will allow mainland investors to buy Taiwan stocks.''"

Economic woes

One of Ma's promises as presidential candidate was called the "633 Plan," which promised of 6%, unemployment rate of less than 3%, and per capita income of more than 30,000. However, high unemployment rate and high consumer price index attributed to a high three months after Ma's inauguration not seen in 28 years.

In early September, Ma, in an interview with a Mexican newspaper, admitted that he will not be able to achieve his "633 Plan" promises before the end of his first term.

About 2,000 companies had gone bankrupt since Ma's inauguration, according to a governmental commercial office in Taipei. The Taiwan Stock Exchange also fell to two-year lows in September 2008.

On 11 Sept. 2008, Ma's cabinet unveiled a $5.6-billion USD economic stimulus package. Among the items of the package are infrastructure projects, economic incentives to small businesses, and other tax cuts. Stock transaction taxes are also halved for the next six months. Taiwan's economy will likely grow 4.3% in 2008, down from 5.7 in 2007, according to Fitch Ratings.

Although an economic stimulus plan was introduced, Taiwan stocks still closed lower on 11 Sept. 2008. Financial Times describes Taiwan's economy as suffering "downward pressure driven by global factors." Analysts also point out that, "During its first 100 days in office, the government has made a series of bold steps to deregulate economic ties between Taiwan and China. But as these policies coincided with the global downturn and foreign investors had already bought Taiwan stocks heavily before the election, betting on the reforms, the island’s market has seen a sell-off worse than the regional average."

Political positions

View on independence

In February 2006, while visiting Europe, Ma said that although he and the KMT favor eventual reunification, the KMT respects the opinions of Taiwanese people, and independence is a choice for the people of Taiwan. This caused widespread criticism within the party and from the mainland. In a December 2005 Newsweek International interview when asked about unification, Ma stated that "for our party, the eventual goal is reunification, but we don't have a timetable," explaining that he meant it was a choice for Taiwan but a choice for the Chinese KMT. Perhaps to deflect heavy criticism from the Pan-Green Coalition the KMT later made an advertisement in the Liberty Times recognizing that independence is an option for the Taiwanese people. Wang Jin-pyng praised Ma for the policy shift since Wang himself made a similar statement during the 2004 election, but James Soong said he was "shocked" and Lien Chan said he was never consulted. This event actually won some welcome voices from Southern Taiwan where voters customarily favor the Pan-Green Coalition. One top KMT official said "we might as well let the measles out now so that we will be immune to it when election year comes close, because reunification or independence can be a hot topic by then."

Ma clarified later that the current KMT policy of retaining the status quo has not changed and has reiterated this position several times; further he also has reiterated his party's support of the one-China policy. Ma has defined the status quo as the "Five No's." During a visit to the United States in March 2006, he proposed a "proactive" approach to cross-strait relations which he called the "Five Do's."

On March 17, 2008, Ma threatened to boycott the Beijing Olympics if elected should the 2008 unrest in Tibet spiral out of control.

Other positions

Ma Ying-jeou told March 23, 2008, one day after his success in Taiwan's presidential election, 2008, he had no immediate plans to visit mainland China and would work to fulfill his campaign pledge to improve relations with the mainland, starting direct flights, allowing more mainland tourists to visit and helping the island's financial industry go to the mainland.
Since then, Ma Ying-jeou has repeatedly mentioned the "1992 Consensus" as the existing basis for constructive dialogue and exchange between the Mainland and Taiwan. On 12th April 2008, then Vice-President-elect Vincent Siew formally met with Hu Jintao at the Boao Forum in Hainan, China.

Ma Ying-jeou wrote his doctoral dissertation on the legal basis of ROC's sovereignty over the Diaoyu Islands. Throughout his political career, Ma has made several statements criticizing the failure by the central government to assert sovereignty over the islands, and that he would have no reservations or qualms for war over the islands .


*"Disputes over oily waters: a case study of continental shelf problems and foreign oil investments in the East China Sea and Taiwan Strait." Ying-jeou Ma, Thesis , Harvard Law School, December 1980.
*''Legal Problems of Seabed Boundary Delimitation in the East China Sea'', Ying-jeou Ma, with a Foreword by Professor Louis B. Sohn. Baltimore: Occasional Papers/Reprints Series in Contemporary Asian Studies Inc., 1984.

Ma Ho-ling

Ma Ho-ling was a high official of Kuomintang and the Republic of China. He was the father of Ma Ying-jeou, the President of the Republic of China.


Ma was born in Xiangtan, Hunan in 1920. He graduated from Central Political School . He married Qin Houxiu in 1944 and came to Taiwan in 1948.

Ma was a Director at Youth Supervision Committee of the Executive Yuan and Vice Chairman of Performance Committee of Kuomintang.

Ma Ho-ling had a strong influence on his son Ma Ying-jeou. In an interview in 2004, he said that he wanted his son to run for president. But in 2005 he strongly opposed his son to and even threat to commit suicide if Ma Ying-jeou would not give up his candidacy.

Ma Ho-ling died of a heart attack in 2005. The inscription on his urn said: "Replace independence with gradual unification, strengthen China and work towards unification." When this inscription was disclosed, President Chen Shui-bian took advantage of it as evidence that Ma Ying-jeou did not love Taiwan.

During the , Chuang Kuo-jung, an official of the ROC Ministry of Education, accused Ma Ho-ling of having affairs with various women. After arousing public anger, Chuang apologized and stepped down from his post.

Liu Shaoqi

Liu Shaoqi was a Chinese revolutionary, statesman, and theorist. He was , China's head of state, from 27 April 1959 to 31 October 1968, during which he led economic construction and policy initiatives of the country. He fell from political favour due to being seen as a challenge to Mao's power, and was purged during the Cultural Revolution, when he was labeled China's No.1 Capitalist-roader and deemed a traitor. He died under harsh treatment in late 1969, but his reputation would be posthumously rehabilitated in 1980.


Born into a moderately rich peasant family in Huaguangtang, Nantang, theoretical affairs. in Ningxiang County, Changsha, Hunan province He attended Ningxiang Zhusheng Middle School , and Hunan First Normal School, where he may have met Mao Zedong . In 1917, he joined the "New People's Study Society", founded by Mao and Cai Hesen, and in 1918 was sponsored by the society to study at Yude Middle School in Baoding, Hebei. In 1920, Liu and Mao organized a Socialist Youth Corps, after which Liu was recruited to study at the Comintern's Toilers of the East University in Moscow; one of his classmates was Zhang Guotao. In 1921 he joined the newly formed CCP. He went back to China in 1922, and as secretary of the All-China Labor Syndicate, worked with Zhang to organize several railway workers' strikes in the Yangzi Valley and at Anyuan on the Jiangxi-Hunan border. His work with Anyuan coal miners was the first direct revolutionary work under Mao.

In 1925, Liu was a member of the Guangzhou-based All-China Federation of Labor Executive Committee. During the next two years, he led many political campaigns and strikes in Hubei and Shanghai. Liu worked with Li Lisan in Shanghai in 1925, capitalizing on the aftermath of the May 30 Incident. He then fled to Wuhan, was briefly arrested in Changsha and then returned to Guangzhou to help organize the 16-month long Canton-Hong Kong strike of 1925-26.

In 1927 he was elected to the Party's Central Committee, and appointed head of its Labor Department. In 1929, he worked at party headquarters in Shanghai, and was named Secretary of the Manchurian Party committee in Fengtian. In 1930 and 1931, he attended the Third and Fourth Plenums of the 6th Central Committee, and was elected to the Central Executive Committee of the Chinese Soviet Republic in 1931 or 1932. In that year, he went to the Jiangxi Soviet.

In 1932 Liu became the Party Secretary in Fujian Province. Two years later he accompanied the Long March at least as far as the crucial Zunyi Conference, but was then sent to the so-called "White Areas" to reorganize underground activities in North China, based out of Beiping and Tianjin. In 1936 he was Party Secretary in North China, leading the anti-Japanese movements in that area with the assistance of future leaders such as Peng Zhen, An Ziwen, Bo Yibo, Ke Qingshi, Liu Lantao and Yao Yilin. In 1939 he ran the Central Plains Bureau and in 1941 the Central China Bureau. Some Japanese sources allege his organization with sparking the Marco Polo Bridge Incident in July 1937, which gave Japan the excuse to formally launch World War II.

In 1937, Liu went to the Communist base at Yenan, and in 1941 he became political commissar of the New Fourth Army. He was elected as one of 5 CC Secretaries at the 7th National Party Congress, in 1945. Liu was thus the supreme leader of the communist forces in Manchuria and North China, a stature frequently overlooked by historians.

From 1945 to his downfall in 1966, Liu ranked as the First Vice Chairman of the Chinese Communist Party.. In 1949, he was Vice Chairman of the Central People's Government, and later First Vice Chairman of the National People's Congress . He succeeded Mao as Government Chairman in 1958, and was publicly acknowledged as Mao's chosen successor in 1961.

Liu worked mainly in party organizational and theoretical affairs. An orthodox Soviet-style Communist, he favored state planning and the development of heavy industry. He was the first to announce the Great Leap Forward, at the Second Session of the 8th CCP National Congress, in May 1958, and together with Deng Xiaoping and Peng Zhen stood at odds with moderates led by Chen Yun and Zhou Enlai. The first indication of concern came at the August 1959 Lushan Plenum.

Amid growing disenchantment with Mao's Great Leap Forward, and Liu gained influence within the CCP. They embarked on economic reforms that bolstered their prestige among the party apparatus and the national populace. Deng and Liu advocated more pragmatic policies, as opposed to Mao's radical ideas.

Halfway through the 1960s, however, Mao rebuilt his position in the Party and in 1966 he launched the Cultural Revolution as a means of destroying his enemies in the Party. Liu and Deng Xiaoping, along with many others, were denounced as "capitalist roaders." Liu was labeled as a "traitor," and "the biggest capitalist roader in the Party." In July 1966 he was displaced as Party Deputy Chairman by Lin Biao. By 1967 Liu and his wife Wang Guangmei were under house arrest in Beijing.

Liu was removed from all his positions and expelled from the Party in October 1968 and disappeared from view.

During his life, Liu had diabetes. Furthermore, in his old age, he developed pneumonia and was then refused all medicine by Mao and his officials. On the orders of Mao's wife, he was kept alive so that the Ninth Party Congress in 1969 would have a 'living target'. At the Congress, he was denounced as a traitor and an enemy agent. He was then allowed to die in agony. Mao continuously disfavored Liu and his political aspirations during Liu's brief years in office.

The exact conditions of his death remain uncertain and contested. One version attributes his death to "medical neglect", . Several weeks after his death, Red Guards discovered him lying on the floor covered in diarrhea and vomit, with a foot of unkempt hair protruding from his scalp. It was here that the former chairman of China died on 12 November 1969. At midnight, under secrecy, his remains were brought in a jeep to a crematorium, his legs hanging out the back, and he was cremated under the name Liu Huihuang. The cause of death was recorded as illness, and his family was not informed for another three years after this date, and the people in China for ten years . The ashes of his body are said to be held at Babao shan.

After Deng Xiaoping came to power in 1978, Liu was politically rehabilitated , with a belated state funeral over a decade after his death.

Liu's best known writings include ''How to be a Good Communist'' , ''On the Party'' , and ''Internationalism and Nationalism'' .

Liu Chao-shiuan

Liu Chao-shiuan is the current Premier of the Republic of China, an educator, and President of .


Liu was born in Liuyang, Hunan in 1943. He received his Bachelor degree from National Taiwan University in 1965 and his Ph.D degree from the University of Toronto in 1971.

He is a book writer and has published a fiction novel of ancient Chinese rovers practicing martial arts.

Liu started to receive public attention when he was the President of National Tsing-hua University in Hsinchu before 1993. At that time, he and his school had just successfully hosted the annual united college-entrance examination for Bachelor degree in Taiwan.

Then, Liu was given the post of Minister of Transportation, from 1993 to 1996. He was Vice-Premier from 1997 to 2000. He became the President of Soochow University in 2004.

Liu was selected by current President Ma Ying-jeou to become the Premier of the Republic of China in April 2008. His term as Premier took effect with Ma's incoming administration on May 20, 2008.

Li Min

Li Min , original name Mao Jiaojiao , is the daughter of Mao Zedong, former chairman of the Chinese Communist Party and the Peoples' Republic of China and his second wife, He Zizhen. Her surname is rather than , because Mao had changed his name to "Li Desheng" for a period of time to prevent from being chased by Kuomintang army during the Chinese Civil War.


Li Min was born in Yan'an in 1936. She married Kong Linghua in 1959. She has one son, Kong Jining and one danghter, Kong Dongmei .

Li Min was the member of the 10th National Congress of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference.

Li Chun

Li Chun , better known in Japan as , is one of the two latest members of all-girl J-pop group Morning Musume. The two were announced to be joining as the eighth generation of Morning Musume on March 15, 2007. Along with Qian Lin, she is one of the two members in the history of Morning Musume that is not of a Japanese origin.


In 2006 Li Chun participated in the contest .

On March 15, 2007, Li Chun was officially announced to be joining the eighth generation of all girl J-pop group Morning Musume as a "foreign student". Tsunku believes that she and Qian Lin will be key for Morning Musume's planned expansion into Asia in 2007.

Three days later, on March 18, she made her Japanese television debut on Hello! Morning. Within the same week, she moved to Tokyo, Japan.

Her first stage appearance took place during Morning Musume leader Hitomi Yoshizawa's graduation concert on May 6, 2007 at Saitama Super Arena.

Li Chenden

Li Chenden , was an eminent Han Chinese official, military general,late Qing Dynasty in China. He join the Xiang Army to fight effectively against the Taiping Rebellion and restored the stability of Qing Dynasty, and was one of nine generals lead main forces 60,000 occupied the Nanjing in 1864, commander Zeng Guoquan choiced Li is first merit of recovery Nanjing in nine generals, and reported to Beijing‘s government praised him because Li‘s excellent staff ability even generals keep another opinions for Li gained.

In Qing's 267 years, Li was the youngest created Peerage person.

Find Hong Xiuquan‘s body

Li Chenden main task was explode and destroyed the most thick city wall in Nanjing in the world.

19 July afternoon 13:00, the attackers detonated the explosives in the tunnel under Taiping Gate, first time everyman feel light earthquake and lower shout from underground, second time about one miniute terrible silence, and then shocked burst the wall breaking fly 2--10 km far down!

Li led 600 soldiers ran into shout: loudly and combat from there broken wall into city, and command toward and occupied Hong‘s place directly.

Li was second general arrived Hong‘s place on secont day, first general never find Hong‘s body and Li was same, too. Until 30 July at garden‘s someone Chinese pavilion, Li find ground look like newly at pavilion, he ordered soldiers dig there, surprise find naked Hong‘s body by white cloth, body‘s hands on chest and hold a iron cross,no coffin, and body half was decomposition, but shoulders and right ass has meat and leather, long hair whole become white.

Thunderstorm rain

Soon Li reported to Viceroy of Liangjiang Zeng Guofan and commander Zeng Guoquan come here and how to manage this important body,

Zeng Guofan watched this enemy but also some strange friendship with him that body, keep a few minutes silence, then slowly sigh said:, Zeng orded.

Depend on this , it could identify Zeng is not Hanjian--not 100% at least!

Then strange happen suddenly: a thunder broke sky and down here!When they began burned Hong‘s body, former sunny day turned became thunderstorm rain days, it wet seriously pandemic happens along by flood, from then Chinese said 洪水 meant flood.

Lao Chongguang

Lao Chongguang was a official during the Qing dynasty and a native of Changsha County, Hunan province.


His grandson is the philosophy of Dr.Lao Sze-Kwang.

Jiang Hua (1907–1999)

Jiang Hua was a Chinese politician and President of the Supreme People's Court of China


Jiang Hua was born in Jianghua, Hunan. He was the First Secretary of the Communist Party of China in Zhejiang, and was the President of the Supreme People's Court from 1975 to 1983. He was largely visible during the sentencing of the Gang of Four.

Huo Kuizhang

Huo Kuizhang was a KMT general from Hunan.


Hu Jianglai is a master now study Financial Engineering for a Ph.D. in economics from 2007 at the University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, China.

He graduated with a B.S. in mathematics from Gannan Normal University in 2006.

Influential works


He Long

He Long was a communist military leader. He rose to the rank of Marshal and Vice Premier after the founding of the People's Republic of China.

Early life

He Long was a number of the Tujia ethnic group. Born in Sangzhi, Hunan province, he was the son of a minor military officer who was a member of the Gelaohui , a secret society dating back to the early Qing dynasty. A cowherd during his youth, he received no formal education. He killed a local government tax assessor who had murdered his uncle, and afterwards became an outlaw .

By the mid-1920s, he had emerged as an important local military figure, rising to command the Nationalist Twentieth Army in 1923. During the 1926 Northern Expedition, He commanded the 1st Division, 9th Corps of the National Revolutionary Army. In 1927 He joined the Communist Party of China , serving as commander of the 20th Corps, 1st Column and leading the main force of the Nanchang Uprising. Chiang Kai-Shek continuously tried to make him rejoin the Kuomintang , but, failing to succeed, Chiang ordered one hundred of He's relatives killed, including three sisters and his brother.

After the failure of the Nanchang Uprising, He turned down an offer by the CCP Central Committee to study in Russia and returned to Hunan where he raised a new force.

In 1930 he let the Second Army in attacking Wuhan, then retreated to Western Hunan. During the Long March, he emerged as a supporter of Mao Zedong's peasant-oriented approach. The Second Army of the Chinese Red Army under He Long's command was the only communist force that instead of having its number reduced, its number actually increased slightly during the Long March.

After the Liberation

After the communist victory and the founding of the People's Republic in 1949, He headed the National Sports Commission. He was made a marshal in 1955, and was also made vice-premier. During the Cultural Revolution he was branded an anti-Party element and purged in 1966. He died in custody from diabetes, beatings and starvation.

He Jiuying

He Jiuying {: 何九盈; Pinyin: ''Hé Jiǔyímg''; born 1932 ) was a professor at Beijing University Department of Chinese and is an expert on historical Chinese phonology. His son is He Li.


He Jiuying was born in Anren, Hunan. He graduated from Beijing University in 1961 and then joined the faculty of Beijing University Department of Chinese.

Professor He is a leading expert on ancient Chinese language. His published books include ''Gu Hanyu Yinyunxue Shuyao'' , ''Shanggu Yin'' , and ''Zhongguo Gudai Yuyanxue Shi'' .

Selected publications

*1991: ''Historical Chinese Phonology'' , Commercial Press, ISBN 7-100-00072-6
*1995: ''A History of Chinese Modern Linguistics'', Guangdong Education Press, ISBN 7-5406-3399-9; ''A History of Chinese Ancient Linguistics'', Guangdong Education Press, ISBN 7-5406-3400-6
*2000: ''The Culture of Chinese Characters'', Liaoning People's Press, ISBN 7-205-04500-2.
*2006: ''Yuyan Conggao'' , Commercial Press, ISBN 7-100-04577-0.

He Guoqiang

He Guoqiang is a high-ranking government official in the government of the People's Republic of China. Currently he is the 8th ranked member of the Politburo Standing Committee, and the head of the new Central Commission for Discipline Inspection.


He Guoqiang is a native of Xiangxiang, Hunan. He joined the Communist Party of China in January 1966 and joined the work force in September 1966. He graduated from the Inorganic Chemistry Department at the Beijing Institute of Chemical Engineering where he had majored in Inorganics. With his university education, he holds the title of ''Senior Engineer''. He was first assigned to work as a technician at the synthesis division of the Lunan Chemical Fertilizer Plant in Shandong. During his eleven years there he eventually made his way up to party branch secretary. Eventually became an official at the chemical industry department at the Shandong provincial government, ascending through the ranks to become party chief in Jinan, the capital of Shandong, in 1987. He was transferred to become Governor of Fujian between 1997 to 1999, and then as the party chief of Chongqing until 2002. He moved to national politics that year, becoming the head of the Organization Department of the Communist Party of China, overseeing personnel.

He was elected to be a member of the Politburo Standing Committee at the 17th Party Congress, heading up the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection, in charge of stamping out corruption with party officials, replacing Wu Guanzheng. He was ordered by President Hu Jintao to go into earthquake areas in the aftermath of the 2008 Sichuan earthquake.

Guo Songtao

Guo Songtao , born in 11 April 1818 in Xiangyin in Hunan, died in 18 July 1891, diplomat and statesman during the Qing dynasty.

Early career

As a young man, Guo studied at the Yuelu Academy in Changsha, where befriended Zeng Guofan. In 1847, Guo was awarded the highest degree in the and soon afterwards he became a bachelor in the Hanlin Academy. In 1853, he was called to assist Zeng Guofan suppressing the Taiping Rebellion in their native province of Hunan. During the suppression of the Taipings Rebellion, Guo distinguished himself as a prominent advocate of the local likin tax as a means of financing the campaigns. He later also assisted Li Hongzhang's Huai Army in their campaigns against rebels in the Anhui province.

Diplomatic service

Guo became an important member of China's Self-Strengthening Movement in the 1860s and 70s and distinguished himself for his advocacy of a moderate and peaceful foreign policy. Guo became the first Qing to be stationed in a western country. He served as an ambassador to England and France from 1877 through 1879 as part of England's demands after the Margary Affair to have a Chinese Ambassador in England.

Ding Delong

Ding Delong was a KMT general from Hunan.

Diana Pang

Diana Pang is a Hong Kong dancer and actress, born on 10 November 1972 in Changsha, Hunan.

She was a member of Beijing Ballet Troupe for three years . Her family moved to the USA in 1990, and she entered the Dance Faculty of Juilliard School, New York City to study ballet. She won Miss China USA.

She moved to Mainland China and starred in a Canadian film Chinese Chocolate , then moved to Hong Kong, with her debut film being Wong Jing's 1995 ''The Saint of the Gamblers''. She starred mostly in Category III films, but she never appeared fully nude on screen.

Her other low budget film, are: ''Evil Instinct'' , ''Hong Kong Showgirls'' , '''' . She is now retired.


''Hong Kong Pie''
''X Imp'' - Aunt Fak
''Hong Kong Spice Gals'' - The Policewoman
''Brother Forever'' - Sister Nah
''Loving Girl''
''Web of Deception'' - Jessica
''All's Well, Ends Well 1997'' - Girlfriend
'''' - Sheila
''Evil Instinct'' - Wendy Pang
''How to Meet the Lucky Stars'' - Nurse
''Midnight Express in Orient'' - David's Wife
''Hong Kong Show Girls'' - Tai-Dan
''The Six Devil Women'' - Man Nap
''Dangerous Duty'' - Ling Peidan
'''' - Ching Kwok-Shan/Fun-Fun
''Another Chinese Cop'' - Mindy
''The Saint of Gamblers'' - Hokei
'''' - Chow Mei-Si

Chu Ching-wu

Professor Paul Chu , native of Taishan, Guangdong but born in Changsha, Hunan, China in 1941, received his Bachelor of Science degree from National Cheng Kung University in Taiwan in 1962. He earned his Master of Science degree from Fordham University, New York in 1965, and completed his PhD degree at the in 1968. All of his three degrees are in physics.

After two years' performing industrial research with Bell Laboratories at Murray Hill, New Jersey, Prof. Chu was appointed Assistant Professor of Physics at Cleveland State University in 1970. He was subsequently promoted to Associate Professor and Professor of Physics in 1973 and 1975, respectively.

He took up an appointment as Professor of Physics at the University of Houston in 1979. After his historic discovery of superconductivity above 77 K in in 1987, he was appointed the Director of the Texas Center for Superconductivity. He has served as the T. L. L. Temple Chair of Science at the same university since 1987. He also has served as a consultant and visiting staff member at Bell Laboratories, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, the Marshall Space Flight Center, Argonne National Laboratory, and DuPont at various time.

Prof. Chu has received numerous awards and honors for his outstanding work in superconductivity, including the US National Medal of Science and the International Prize for New Materials. He was an invited contributor to the White House National Millennium Time Capsule at the National Archives in 2000 and was selected the Best Researcher in the US by US News and World Report in 1990. He is a member of the U.S. , American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences , Academia Sinica, Russian Academy of Engineering and the Third World Academy of Sciences. His research activities extend beyond superconductivity to magnetism and dielectrics.

He succeeded Professor Chia-Wei Woo as the President of The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology on 1 July 2001. He plans to step down as University President in September 2009.

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Cheng Fangwu

Cheng Fangwu was a Chinese educator.


Cheng Fangwu was born in Xinhua County, Hunan in 1897. He was the president of Shandong University in Jinan from August 1958 until January 1974, and President of Renmin University of China from 1978 to 1983.

Mao Anqing

Mao Anqing was the last known surviving son of Mao Zedong. He was the second son of Chairman Mao and his wife, Yang Kaihui. He lived his life in the shadow of his father, and suffered from a mental illness. He worked as a translator and never became active in politics.


Mao Anqing was born in Changsha, in Hunan province. His mother was executed by the local warlord, He Jian, in 1930. Mao Anqing, his elder brother Mao Anying and his younger brother Mao Anlong escaped to Shanghai. Their father was in Jiangxi province at the time, and they were looked after by local communist activists. They spent some time living on the streets, and Mao Anqing was badly beaten by a policeman in 1930. Some blame this beating for his later mental illness. His younger brother Mao Anlong died in Shanghai.

He and his surviving elder brother were sent to Paris in 1936, and then moved to Moscow, where they remained until 1947. Mao Anqing and his brother participated in World War II for the Soviet Union against Nazi Germany.

He returned to China with his brother in 1947 and joined the Communist Party of China. The Communist forces under his father defeated the opposing Kuomintang forces on mainland China in 1949, and proclaimed the People's Republic of China. His brother was killed in 1950 in Korea, and Mao Anqing's mental illness worsened. He spent considerable periods in mental hospitals.

Mao Anqing worked as a researcher at the Academy of Military Sciences and the Publicity Department of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, mainly translating books from to as a Russian linguist. He also wrote various books on his father. He was never actively involved in politics.